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Types of Fittings

Fittings are distinguished based on their connection types and the functions they perform. There are many types of fittings: Compression Fittings, Bite-type Fittings, Mechanical Grip Fittings, Flare Fittings, End Fittings, Threaded Fittings, NPT (National Pipe Thread) Fittings

Compression Fittings:

                                                     
Compression fittings are fittings which connect tubes using compression on a gasket, ring, or ferrule. The compression is typically made by tightening a nut onto the fitting over the tubing and ferrule, compressing and securing the tubing inside. Standard compression fittings do not require tools to assemble, making them convenient for quick, simple installation. However, they cannot withstand very high pressures and do not have as much flexibility as soldered fittings, making them less functional in systems with vibration, thermal cycling, and other dynamic forces. They also come in a limited number of materials (most commonly brass) and are best suited for metal on metal connections.

Bite-type Fittings:
                                                             
Are compressive fittings with a sharpened ferrule that "bites" the tube when compressed and provides the seal. Bite-type fittings, like standard compressive fittings, require no special tools to assemble but provide a stronger, higher pressure connection.

Mechanical grip Fittings:
                                                        
Mechanical grip fittings are two-ferrule assemblies. The back ferrule grips the tubing while pressing up against the front ferrule, which spring-loads the front ferrule and creates a seal between the tubing and fitting body. These fittings can be reassembled multiple times without damaging components or tubing. They have good resistance to mechanical vibration. 

Flare Fittings:
                                                       
Consist of a body with a flared or coned end. Special flaring tools are used to install the tube to fit inside the flared end, providing a deep seal. Flare fittings can handle higher pressures and a wider range of operating parameters than standard compression fittings.

End Fittings:

End fittings provide specific surfaces for connecting tubes.

Clamp ends are fittings which allow tubes to be clamped to the connection.

Plain ends are fittings which allow tubes to be connected by adhesive, solder, or other forms. 

Flange Fittings:
                                            
Flange fittings are ports with flush surfaces perpendicular to the attached tube. These surfaces are joined and sealed via clamps, bolts, and/or welding.

Threaded Fittings:
                                            
Threaded fittings have screw threads (built-in grooves) on their inner (female) or outer (male) surfaces designed to accept tubing with matching threads. Threads which provide a simple connection but no seal are called straight threads. Tapered threads are designed to provide a tight seal for gases or fluids under pressure. Seal reliability can be improved by adding a coating or seal tape (Teflon). Especially precise threads are called "dry fit", meaning they seal without the need for an additional sealant, which is important in applications where sealant addition could cause contamination or corrosion.

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